A decision is a choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available. The purpose of making a decision is to establish and achieve organizational goals and objectives. The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists, goals or objectives are wrong, or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them.
Thus the decision-making process is fundamental to management. Almost everything a manager does involves decisions, indeed, some suggest that the management process is decision making. Although managers cannot predict the future, many of their decisions require that they consider possible future events. Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance, hut since uncertainty is always there, risk accompanies decisions. Sometimes the consequences of a poor decision are slight; at other times they are serious.
Choice is the opportunity to select among alternatives. If there is no choice, there is no decision to be made. Decision making is the process of choosing, and many decisions have a broad range of choice. For example, a student may be able to choose among a number of different courses in order to implement the decision to obtain a college degree. For managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like. These constraints exist at all levels of the organization.
Alternatives are the possible courses of action from which choices can be made. If there are no alternatives, there is no choice and, therefore, no decision. If no alternatives are seen, often it means that a thorough job of examining the problems has not been done. For example, managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion; this is their way of simplifying complex problems. But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives.
At the managerial level, decision making includes limiting alternatives as well as identifying them, and the range is from highly limited to practically unlimited.
Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best -- that is, which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals. An
organizational goal is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach. Because individuals (and organizations) frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision. Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization. Called suboptimization, this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function but decreases the advantages to another unit or function. For example, the marketing manager may argue effectively for an increased advertising budget. In the larger scheme of things, however, increased funding for research to improve the products might be more beneficial to the organization.
These trade-offs occur because there are many objectives that organizations wish to attain simultaneously. Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary from person to person and from department to department. Different managers define the same problem in different terms. When presented with a common case, sales managers tend to see sales problems, production managers see production problems, and so on.
The ordering and importance of multiple objectives is also based, in part, on the values of the decision maker. Such values are personal; they are hard to understand, even by the individual, because they are so dynamic and complex. In many business situations different people's values about acceptable degrees of risk and profitability cause disagreement about the correctness of decisions.
People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon. But from a systems point of view, problems have multiple causes, and decisions have intended and unintended consequences. An organization is an ongoing entity, and a decision made today may have consequences far into the future. Thus the skilled manager looks toward the future consequences of current decisions.
The subject of today's talk is interviews.
The key words here are preparation and confidence, which will carry you far.
Do your homework first.
Find out all you can about the job you are applying for and the organization you hope to work for.
Many of the employers I interviewed made the same criticism of candidates. "They have no idea what the day to day work of the job brings about. They have vague notions of "furthering the company's prospects’ or of 'serving the community', but have never taken the trouble to find out the actual tasks they will be required to do.”
Do not let this be said of you. It shows an unattractive indifference to your employer and to your job.
Take the time to put yourself into the interviewer's place. He wants somebody who is hard-working with a pleasant personality and a real interest in the job.
Anything that you find out about the prospective employer can be used to your advantage during the interview to show that you have bothered to master some facts about the people who you hope to work for.
Write down (and remember) the questions you want to ask the interviewer(s) so that you are not speechless when they invite your questions. Make sure that holidays and pay are not the first things you ask about. If all your questions have been answered during the interview, reply: "In fact, I did have several questions, but you have already answered them all.”
Do not be afraid to ask for clarification of something that has been said during the interview if you want to be sure what was implied, but do be polite.
Just before you go to the interview, look again at the original advertisement that you answered, any correspondence from your prospective employer, photocopies of your letter of application or application form and your resume.
Then you will remember what you said and what they want. This is very important if you have applied for many jobs in a short time as it is easy to become confused and give an impression of inefficiency.
Make sure you know where and when you have to report for the interview. Go to the building (but not inside the office) a day or two before, if necessary, to find out how long the journey takes and where exactly the place is.
Aim to arrive five or ten minutes early for the actual interview, then you will have a little time in hand and you will not panic if you are delayed. You start at a disadvantage if you arrive worried and ten minutes late.
Dress in clean, neat, conservative clothes. Now is NOT the time to experiment with the punk look or (girls) to wear low-cut dresses with miniskirts. Make sure that your shoes, hands and hair (and teeth) are clean and neat.
Have the letter inviting you for an interview ready to show in case there is any difficulty in communication.
You may find yourself facing one interviewer or a panel. The latter is far more intimidating, but do not let it worry you too much. The interviewer will probably have a table in front of him/her. Do not put your things or arms on it.
If you have a bag or a case, put it on the floor beside your chair. Do not clutch it nervously or, worse still, drop it, spilling everything.
Shake hands if the interviewer offers his hand first. There is little likelihood that a panel of five wants to go though the process of all shaking hands with you in turn. So you do not be upset if no one offers.
Shake hands firmly -- a weak hand suggests a weak personality, and a crushing grip is obviously painful. Do not drop the hand as soon as yours has touched it as this will seem to show you do not like the other person.
Speak politely and naturally even if you are feeling shy. Think before you answer any questions.
If you cannot understand, ask: "Would you mind rephrasing the question, please?" The question will then be repeated in different words.
If you are not definitely accepted or turned down on the spot, ask: "When may I expect to hear the results of this interview?"
If you do receive a letter offering you the job, you must reply by letter (keep a photocopy) as soon as possible.
Text A What Is a Decision ?
第一、二段：决策的定义 The definition of decision
第三、四段：作决策的一般过程 The general process of making a decision
第五至九段：在管理层次上，多种因素影响决策的制定 Various factors influencing decision making at the managerial level
II.New Words 词汇精讲
1.goal n. 目标，进球，球门 ( 同义词：aim ，end ， purpose，objective)
Her goal is a place at university. 她的目标是在大学任教。
2.objective ： n./a. 目的;目标(尤指较长远的目标);宗旨/客观的，如实的
派生词：object n. 物体 反义词：subjective n./a. 主语;主观事物;/ 主观的，
用法：Her objective is to get a college education. 她的目标是接受大学教育。
If you don't work hard， you'll never achieve your objectives.
It is an objective report. 这是一篇如实的报道。
3.accomplish v. 完成(任务)等The students accomplished the task in less than ten minutes . 学生们在不到10分钟内完成了任务。
4.predict ： v 预言，预示， 预告 同义词：forecast v. 预测，预报
It's hard to predict when it will happen . 很难预见这件事何时发生。
5.accompany ： v. 伴随，陪同
The lonely old man is accompanied by his dog. 这位孤独的老人让他的狗做伴。
All orders must be accompanied with cash. 所有的订货单必须随付现金。
派生词： company n. 公司; v. 陪伴
The committee's suggestions will be implemented immediately. 委员会的意见将立即贯彻执行。
The changes to the national health system will be implemented next year.
7.constraint n. 限制， 约束
They told the truth but only under constraint. Constraint on the rules of grammer 他们说了实话但是有所保留(是被迫的)。 语法规则的限制(约束)
8.tendency n. 趋势，倾向
There is a growing tendency for people to work at home instead of in offices.
派生词：tend v. 趋向，倾向 用法：tend to do sth.
He tends to get angry when people disagree with him.
9.achievement n. 完成，成就，
An Olympic silver medal is a remarkable achievement for one so young .
派生词：achieve v. 完成，做到，达到(目的)，实现，获得
He will never achieve his objectives if he doesn't work hard.
10.attain ：v. 达到;获得 (长期努力后而获得)同义词：obtain， get
用法： She has made up her mind to attain her goal in life. 她下定决心要达到生活中的目标。
The apple tree has attained to a great height. 苹果树已长得很高了。
11.optimal adj 最佳的
The sailors are waiting for optimal weather conditions before taking off .船员们正在等待出航的最佳天气条件。
12.argue ： vt./vi. 争辩，争论，辩论
用法：作不及物动词用时，后边可以接with， about 或over(就…争论)，for (赞成)或against (反对)
She is always ready to argue over the smallest issues. 她总喜欢为极小的问题进行争论。 He often argues philosophy with James. 他常和詹姆斯讨论哲学。
He argued for immediate action . 他主张立即行动。
They argued against such a policy. 他们反对这种政策。
I argued him out going on such a dangerous journey. 我说服他不做这样危险的旅行。 He argued that man was descended from apes. 他论证人类的祖先是猿。
13.scheme n 计划 方案
He has got a crazy scheme for getting rich before he is 20 .
14.multiple adj 多样的 复合的
What the person does next is the result of the multiple influences to which they have been exposed. 一个人下一步会做什么是他受到的多种影响的结果。
15.ongoing adj 进行中的，前进的
No agreement has yet been reached and the negotiations one still ongoing .
16.entity n 存在 实体
He regarded the north of the country as a separate cultural entity.
17.skilled adj 熟练的，有技能的
My mother is very skilled at /in dress-making. 我母亲非常擅长做衣服。
Phrases and Expressions
1.(stand， get， be ) in the way 碍事 ，挡道的;妨碍人的
If you are not going to help， at least don't get in the way! 如果你不愿帮忙，至少别妨碍人家。
The chair is in the way， please move it away. 这把椅子挡着路，请把它移开。
in a way 在某种程度上;在某些方面; 从某一点上看 in no way 决不;一点也不; in the way of 按照; 就…。 而言 by way of 取道，经由 by the way 顺便问一下
2.to make a guess at 猜测
You might have been able to make a guess at who she was. 你本来能够猜到她是谁。 Can you make a guess at the price ? 你猜得出价钱吗?
3.to seek to(inf) 寻求，争取
Power stations are seeking to reduce their use of oil. 发电站正在设法减少石油的使用
4.in part ： 部分地;有些部分;在某种程度上
This was in part due to financial difficulties. 部分是由于财政困难。
The responsibility was in part because of me. 部分责任在我。
5.point of view 视点，视角 The book looks at college life from a student's point of view. 这本书从一个学生的视角来看大学生活。
6.to vary from …to … 从…到…不同，因… 而异
Salary scales vary from state to state. 工资级别因州而异。
7.contribute … to 把… 贡献给…。
We'll contribute ourselves to this career after we graduate . 我们毕业后将为此事业作贡献。 contribute to 导致
Smoking is the main factor contributing to lung cancer. 吸烟是导致肺癌的主要因素。
8.be beneficial to 对… 有利
Jogging is beneficial to our health. 慢跑有利于我们的健康。
Reciting passages is beneficial to improving oral English.
第一部分 Para.1 A decision is a choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available. The purpose of making a decision is to establish and achieve organizational goals and objectives. The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists， goals or objectives are wrong， or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them.
1.made from among alternative courses of action 是过去分词短语作定语courses of action 行动方针that are available 是定语从句，修饰概念短语“行动方针”
2.The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists， goals or objectives are wrong， or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them.
此句是由that引导的表语从句，表语从句由a problem exist; goals of objectives are wrong; 及something is standing in the way of accomplishing them三个并列句构成。
The reason for … is that 是一个常用的句子。例： The reason for canceling the travel is that they lack of money. 取消旅行的原因是他们手头缺钱。
The reason why … 是另外一个常用的句子。例：There are 3 reasons why they are unwilling to discuss insurance .他们不愿意谈论保险的原因有三个。
Para.2 Thus the decision-making process is fundamental to management. Almost everything a manager does involves decisions， indeed， some suggest that the management process is decision making. Although managers cannot predict the future， many of their decisions require that they consider possible future events. Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance， but since uncertainty is always there， risk accompanies decisions. Sometimes the consequences of a poor decision are slight; at other times they are serious.
3.a manager does是省略that的定语从句，修饰先行词everything
当先行词为everything， something， anything， nothing等不定代词时定语从句引导词不可用which， 此句的后半部分 some suggest that …… 是宾语从句suggest v. 认为，提出，建议(其后的宾语从句多用于虚拟语气)
例如：Although my car is very old，it still runs very well .
require vt. 要求，需要 后边由that引导一个宾语从句
5.Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance， but since uncertainty is always there， risk accompanies decisions. make a best guess at 作出最佳猜测，at 表示动作或行为的方向和目标，如：look at (看) ，aim at (瞄准，目的是)，throw (a stone) at (向…掷石头)，shoot at (射击)，laugh at (嘲笑)
本句中what the future will be 是一个介词宾语从句，(作介词at 的宾语);to leave sth. to chance “凭运气，听任命运的安排，听其自然发展”
“as + 形容词(或副词)+ as possible”意思是“尽可能地…; 尽量”可能少 I tried to be as friendly as possible. 我尽量地表示友好。
Come as quickly as possible. 尽快来。since uncertainty is always there 是一个原因状语从句。
risk accompanies decisions .风险伴随着决策
6.sometimes … at other times 有时… ，而有时则 … a poor decision 一个不良决策
第二部分 Para.3 Choice is the opportunity to select among alternatives. If there is no choice， there is no decision to be made. Decision making is the process of choosing， and many decisions have a broad range of choice. For example， a student may be able to choose among a number of different courses in order to implement the decision to obtain a college degree. For managers， every decision has constraints based on policies， procedures， laws， precedents， and the like. These constraints exist at all levels of the organization.
7.“选择”三个词的区别：alternative adj.两者或多于两者选一个，供选择的，n.替代物choice 选自己喜欢的，挑出，选出select 选出最好的，筛选、精选
8.由 if 引导的条件状语从句， 主句中的不定式被动态 to be made作定语， 修饰decision
9.range n. 范围 a broad range of choice 一个很广的选择范围
10.For managers， every decision has constraints based on policies， procedures， laws， precedents， and the like.
本句中based on 是一个过去分词作定语修饰constraints. be based on 表示“建立在…基础上
例：The book is based on a true story. 这本书是以一个真实的故事为依据的。
He was the first to draw a map that was based on all available knowledge， rather than guess or imagination. 他第一个画出以当时所有的知识为基础的地图，而不是基于猜测和想象。
and the like 意思是“等等 (之类的东西)”。
例：He studied painting， music， English and the like. 他学习了绘画、音乐、英语等等。
11.at all levels “在各个层次”
Para.4 Alternatives are the possible courses of action from which choices can be made. If there are no alternatives， there is no choice and， therefore， no decision. If no alternatives are seen， often it means that a thorough job of examining the problems has not been done. For example， managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion; this is their way of simplifying complex problems. But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives.
12.from which 引导定语从句，修饰 courses of action 行动方针
13.a thorough job of examining 一个彻底的考察工作
a thorough job是主语，of examining the problems 修饰job，has not been done是句子的谓语。
thorough a. 彻底的through prep. 通过，穿过 though conj. 虽然，尽管 ( 同although ) thought n. 思想
14.For example， managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion ：
either /or 意思是“非此即彼;二者择一”。
例：We fight， or we don't —— it's an either/or decision.